The Photovoltaic System is a system consisting of one or more solar panels, with an inverter and other electrical and mechanical systems, which use Sun’s energy to generate electricity. The Photovoltaic System varies in size from small installations on residential roofs or small portable systems, to huge installations of power plants.
Sunlight, which consists of energy beams called photons, falls on the solar panel and generates electricity, through a process called photovoltaic effect. Each panel produces a relatively small amount of energy, but can be combined with other panels to produce larger quantities, as is done with solar panels. The energy produced by a solar panel (or array) is produced in the form of direct current (DC). Although many devices use direct current to operate, including the telephone or laptop, they are designed to operate using the widest power grid, which offers alternating current (AC). So, in order for solar energy to be useful, it must first be converted from continuous to alternating current using an inverter. This alternating current from the inverter can now be used to power appliances locally or be channeled into the power grid for use elsewhere.